Tag: Gene Expression

Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(6)

Overall, data presented here suggest that PGE2 can have diverse effects that depend on exposure time, conditions of stimulation, and PGE2 concentrations. This regulation is specific to PGE2 since PGF2a, another PG synthesized by the bovine embryo and endometrium, could not induce the same effects even though it has the potential to generate similar intracellular […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(5)

Among probable roles of lymphocyte GM-CSF, sustenance of conceptus growth, regulation of the functions of fellow immune cells like macrophages or NK cells, and reorientation of the local cytokine network have been proposed. Indeed, GM-CSF has been shown to stimulate IL-10 production in a choriocarcinoma cell line and in human lymphocytes (unpublished results), giving support […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(4)

Results obtained in direct-treatment protocols are believed to mimic the sudden in vivo exposure of endometrial T cells to high amounts of PGE2, a situation likely to occur during the extensive output of IFN-т by the conceptus. The quiescent state of the immune cells, reflected in down-regulated lymphocyte functions, may be related to the success […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(3)

On the other hand, 0.1 ng/ml PGE2 stimulated GM-CSF gene expression, with no effect on IL-2 mRNA or DNA synthesis. Thus, the present study has shown a biphasic effect of PGE? acute exposure on GM-CSF gene expression: a stimulation at low concentrations and an inhibition at high concentrations. Biphasic effects of PGE2 have been reported […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(2)

Embryonic attachment, early in the fourth week of gestation, is characterized by interdigitation of trophoblastic and maternal villi. The binucleate trophoblastic cells fuse with epithelial cells to form multinucleate giant cells, comprising around 50% of the maternal epithelial surface by Day 24. Trophoblastic cells are most certainly in contact with endometrial leukocytes, and the present […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: DISCUSSION(1)

During the bovine estrous cycle, uterine T lymphocytes increase in number from Day 11 onward. CD4+ cells, typically T-helper lymphocytes, are located in the endometrial stroma and outnumber CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells, which constitute the prevalent lymphocytes in the uterine epithelium. Conversely, a decrease of intraepi-thelial lymphocytes is observed during bovine pregnancy, from around Day 21. […]

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Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Both lnterleukin-2: RESULTS(4)

Preconditioning with PGE2 Modulates Lymphocyte Functions As illustrated in Figure 5, A and B, PBL preconditioning with PGs for 72 h followed by a stimulation with ConA alone for 12 h had no significant effect (PGE2 p > 0.5; PGF2a p > 0.3) on IL-2 gene expression as compared to the PG0 control. GM-CSF mRNA […]

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