Archive for the ‘Liver’ Category

Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(7)


The present study provides data regarding the progression of erythropoiesis in late embryonic and early fetal swine of different breeds and uterine environments. These data indicate that the time period between Day 24 and Day 40 is indeed a critical time in the progression of erythropoiesis, since the circulating blood cell populations increase dramatically and change from primarily primitive precursors to almost entirely mature erythrocytes during this time. These data also indicate that the MS fetuses differ from WC fetuses in this process. buy diabetes drugs

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(6)


Significant differences (due to day of gestation) were observed for all cell types except reticulocytes. As expected, the more “primitive” precursors, BE and PE, were more prevalent on Day 24. OE were highest on Day 30, whereas erythrocytes were highest on Day 40. MS fetuses had a significantly lower percentage of PE, a more primitive precursor, than did WC, but a higher percentage of OE on Day 24, and a higher percentage of erythrocytes on Day 40 (Table 5). These data suggest that MS fetuses may produce more mature erythroid cells earlier in gestation than do WC fetuses. Further, WC fetuses had higher hematocrits than MS, despite no statistical difference in total circulating RBC between the two breeds. The smaller volume of the more mature erythroid precursors in the MS fetus could contribute to this observation. buy asthma inhalers

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(5)

A previous study in sheep and monkeys showed that maternal EPO does not cross the placenta, so it is unlikely that circulating EPO originates from a maternal source. A recent study of human placenta indicated that immunoreactive EPO as well as EPO mRNA was present in the human trophoblast, raising the interesting possibility that the porcine placenta may produce EPO as well. Further study of the expression of EPO mRNA and protein in the pig will be required to identify the source of circulating fetal EPO. birth control pills

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(4)


EPO was detected in the plasma of fetal swine on Day 30 and Day 40 (Table 3). The relative decline in EPO between these ages may indicate a physiological difference in fetal erythropoiesis, perhaps due to the rapid expansion of the erythron (circulating RBC plus erythropoietic tissue ) between Day 30 and Day 40. The physiological significance of higher relative plasma EPO values in WC than in MS fetuses on Day 30 and Day 40 is not yet clear but is coincident with lower hematocrits on Day 40 in MS. Not only is EPO involved in production of RBC, but it also plays a role as a mitogen for murine fetal liver stromal cells in vitro and thus may play a role in the growth of the liver at this time in the fetal pig. buy ortho tri-cyclen online

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(3)

Regression analysis revealed a significant regression on Day 40 between fetal weight and hematocrit percentage, and fetal weight and hemoglobin, which differed between intact uterine environments (WC INT and MS) and UHO. Examination of the data suggests that intrauterine crowding results in some fetuses with lower than average body weight and hematocrit percentage and/or blood hemoglobin. It is possible that fetuses in a normal intrauterine environment are not stressed as much (e.g., insufficient nutrients) as those in a crowded environment and therefore do not show this relationship. This observation supports the hypothesis that a crowded uterine environment may indeed affect growth and hematological parameters, which could ultimately result in fetal loss. It was hoped that all “crowded” fetuses might display some anomalies due to crowding. However, it is likely that only those fetuses that will eventually be lost show any differences from fetuses in an intact uterine environment.

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(2)


Also, liver weights were smaller on Day 24 in MS than WC with placental weight as a covariate. The physiological significance of these observations is unknown at this time, but they suggest that by growing more slowly, MS pigs may have an advantage by having more placenta per gram of fetus than do WC pigs. buy prednisone

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Uterine Environment and Breed: DISCUSSION(1)

In this study we investigated the development of the fetal erythropoietic system in late embryonic and early fetal swine, and compared hematological measures and cultured liver protein secretion in fetuses from pigs of different breeds (WC and MS) and uterine environments (WC INT and UHO). Fetal weight, fetal liver weight, placental weight, fetal blood cell numbers, fetal hematocrit, and fetal hemoglobin concentrations all increased with day of gestation, as did the total percentage of circulating erythrocytes. Our data strongly indicate that the fetal erythropoietic system is functioning at this period of gestation in the pig and is maturing rapidly during a time period that is critical for survival in a crowded uterine environment. buy levaquin online

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