Lyme disease (tick-borne borreliosis) is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaete and transmitted by mites.
Lyme disease is characterized by a tendency to chronic and relapsing course and primary lesion of skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart.
This disease was first identified in 1975 in Lyme village (USA), when a group of patients was diagnosed with arthritis, which was characterized by an unusual course.
Infection is transmitted through infected mite bite. Pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi penetrate into the skin with mite’s saliva and multiply for several days, then they spread to other skin areas and internal organs (including heart, brain, joints). Pathogens for a long time (even years) can remain in human body, causing chronic and relapsing course of the disease.
Chronic form of Lyme disease may occur many years after infection. Lyme disease is diagnosed based on special blood tests and symptoms.
Currently there are techniques that allow to recognize the disease faster than previously used antibody tests.
Ixodia dammini mite bites, which is a Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaete transmitter.
Skin redness appears on bitten area. Red spot gradually increases on periphery, reaching 1-10 cm, sometimes up to 60 cm or more, diameter. The spot has round or oval, rarely irregular, shape. The outer edge of inflamed skin is more red, a little extruding above skin surface. Eventually central part of the spot becomes pale or bluish, characteristic ring-shape appears. Bitten area is determined by crust in the spot center, then it turns into a scar. The spot untreated persists for 2-3 weeks, then disappears.
After 1-1,5 months nervous system, heart or joints lesion signs occur. Flu-like symptoms, such as headache, fatigue, fever, sore throat, muscle aches are observed. The joints are hot, swollen and tender (most frequently knee joints are affected), combined with muscle and tendon pain.
Neurological symptoms – paralyses (most often on face), skin sensitivity disorders, insomnia, hearing loss.
Cardiac symptoms – arrhythmia, increased heart rate, brachycardia, chest pains, dizziness, respiratory distress.
There may be mental changes observed: depression, mental disability.
Complications and Possible Effects
Lyme disease most often occurs in late spring or early summer. After 1-2 weeks flu-like symptoms, which may be accompanied by rash, usually disappear. Recent studies have shown that bacteria may penetrate into brain and spinal cord at early disease stage.
Without treatment at early stage after a few weeks or months complications on heart, joints and nervous system appear. However, even at patients, treated at early stage, complications occur in 15% of cases.
Since symptoms are non-specific, Lyme disease is often misdiagnosed and treated as rheumatic arthritis, meningitis or disseminated sclerosis.
Fatigue, mood changes and neurological symptoms are common causes of mental diseases misdiagnosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and other rare diseases, which may be accompanied with similar symptoms.
The disease is rarely fatal, but cardiac complications may manifest in life-threatening arrhythmias, infections during pregnancy, which can cause miscarriage.
When severe weakness, you need rest. Acetylsalicylic acid or acetaminophen can be applied for flue-like symptoms and joint pains relief. In case of joints lesion, rest is necessary, otherwise irreversible damage of affected joints may occur.
For Lyme disease treatment usually antibiotics are prescribed, generally penicillins and tetracyclines, which are administered orally for at least 2 weeks, but usually much longer. One of the most effective nowadays antibiotics for Lyme disease treatment is Zithromax (Azithromycine). In serious cases antibiotics are administered intravenously. The sooner treatment is started, the more effective it is.
To restore affected joints surgical intervention may be required.
In case of pregnant woman infection, she must as soon as possible inform her doctor.
Treatment with Canadian Pharmacy Zithromax
Zithromax (Azithromycine) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic-azalide, included in a new macrolide antibiotics canadian pharmacy subgroup (various types of antibiotics are given). In high concentrations in inflammation area it has a bactericidal effect.
Azithromycin is active against:
- gram-positive cocci (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, CF and G groups streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus viridans);
- gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Legionella pneumophila, Haemophilus ducrei, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Gardnerella vaginalis);
- some anaerobic microorganisms (Bacteroides bivius, Clostridium perfringens, Peptostreptococcus spp);
- and also Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdoferi.
Azithromycin is inactive against gram-positive bacteria resistant to erythromycin.
Azithromycin is rapidly absorbed into gastrointestinal tract, due to its stability in acidic environment and lipophilicity. After oral administration of 500 mg azithromycin maximum concentration (0,4 mg/l) in plasma is reached after 2,5 – 3 hours. Bioavailability is 37%.
Canadian Pharmacy Zythromax (Azithromycin) penetrates well into respiratory tract, genitourinary tract organs and tissues (in particular, prostate gland), skin and soft tissues. High concentration in tissues (10-50 times higher than in blood plasma) and a long-term half-clearance are conditioned by azithromycin low plasma protein-binding and its ability to penetrate into eukaryotic cells and concentrate in low pH environment, surrounding lysosomes. This defines a large seeming distribution volume (31,1 l/kg) and high plasma clearance. Azithromycin ability to accumulate mainly in lysosomes is especially important for intracellular pathogens elimination. It is proved that phagocytes deliver azithromycin to infection localization areas where it is released during phagocytosis process. Azithromycin concentration in infection area is significantly higher than in healthy tissues (at average 24-34%) and correlates with inflammatory edema degree. Despite high concentration in phagocytes, azithromycin doesn’t significantly affect their function.
Azithromycin bactericidal concentrations remain in inflammation area within 5-7 days after last dose intake, which allows short-term (3- and 5-day) treatment.
Canadian Pharmacy Azithromycin clearance from plasma is carried out in 2 stages: half-clearance period lasts for 14-20 hours in the interval from 8 to 24 hours after intake, and 41 hours – in the period from 24 to 72 hours, which allows applying medication 1 time a day.
- rare – vomiting and flatulence;
- transient liver enzymes increased activity;
- extremely rare – skin rash.
- hypersensitivity to macrolide antibiotics;
- severely impaired liver and renal function;
- pregnancy and lactation period (except for cases when benefits of drug use are greater than possible risks);
- allergic reactions in the anamnesis (medical history).