We are using the results from this study to improve our classification system. We have refined our diagnostic checklist to reflect our major significant findings and are developing an index of severity assigning numerical values to the traits. We are also attempting to limit the degree of clinical judgment needed to interpret each case.
The present study has highlighted an important issue to be addressed in future research. Because our entire clinically referred sample had significant behavioural, attentional and socioemotional problems, statistical differences were not indicated between the ARND and comparison groups across all these relevant areas. Substantial work remains in the field, not only with respect to refining our diagnostic techniques further and developing effective treatments but, more specifically, to clarify the extent to which problems with attention, behaviour and adaptive or socioemotional functioning are unique to children exposed prenatally to alcohol, particularly in contrast to other similar clinic-referred samples. Future studies might address this issue specifically by looking more closely at these kinds of measures, as in Greenbaum’s study using qualitative and quantitative information to define a profile of socioemo-tional characteristics in the Motherisk ARND sample. The use of multiple informants, as opposed to relying solely on parent or caregiver reports, may also help to clarify these kinds of issues. buy levaquin online
It is imperative that research studies compare children with ARND with other similar clinical populations to identify the problems that are unique to prenatal alcohol exposure because this information will direct efforts to develop interventions that are specifically targeted to meet the needs of this underserviced population. Such efforts may potentially help to circumvent many of the serious secondary problems, which pose an enormous cost to people with ARND, their families and society.