Research on the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol has been limited by a number of factors. In many of the attempts to define the characteristics associated with ARND, the focus has been on identifying weaknesses even though the children are well known to have a number of personal strengths. Few studies, including the current one, have been able to include specific measures of both dose and timing of alcohol exposure during pregnancy. The main measure for the majority of studies consists simply of knowledge that children were born to mothers who abused alcohol heavily. Buy Asthma Inhalers Online
In some cases, among adopted children for example, even this may not be certain. In addition to lack of specificity around dose and timing of alcohol exposure, even less specific information is available about polysubstance exposure. Two substances commonly used in conjunction with alcohol are cocaine and cigarettes . Cocaine in combination with alcohol produces cocaethylene, an exceptionally active neurotoxic substance, and cigarette smoking combined with alcohol is known to increase the risk for low birth weight, microcephaly and hearing difficulties . As well, other factors such as amount and quality of prenatal care and maternal nutrition are scarcely considered in the research. As such, the extent to which these factors contribute to the outcome of children prenatally exposed to alcohol remains unknown and is a serious confounding issue.