In the present study, both groups of children had clinically elevated scores on measures of attention, as was also noted by Nanson and Hiscock , who compared FAS/fetal alcohol effects subjects with an ADHD sample. The absence of significant differences between the ARND and comparison groups in this domain is important in light of the difference between our two groups in their rates of ADHD. ADHD was more likely to have been diagnosed in the children in the ARND group than in children in the comparison group. One might interpret this difference as a confounding factor in the study. And yet, the increased likelihood of ADHD per se being diagnosed among the ARND group cannot, it seems, account for the differences seen across other areas of functioning given that both groups presented with clinically elevated scores on indexes of attention problems. Children in the ARND group did not have significantly more severe attention problems than children in the comparison group (as indicated by the lack of statistical differences on relevant measures). buy asthma inhalers
One possible explanation for the observed difference in ADHD diagnoses is that the wider range of problems (language, memory, academic, adaptive, etc) among the children in the ARND group may have brought them to the attention of professionals sooner than others. It is worth noting that there is considerable debate about the appropriateness of assigning an ADHD diagnosis to children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Some researchers have suggested that there are qualitative differences between the deficits seen among children with prenatal alcohol exposure and those with pure ADHD . What our finding may speak to is a lack of awareness of ARND: attention problems in these children are less likely to be recognized as one symptom among many associated with prenatal alcohol exposure and instead may be designated as a singular deficit and classified subsequently (erroneously perhaps) as ADHD. This highlights the urgent need for further study to allow for the earliest possible diagnosis of ARND.