These results are generally consistent with previous research that has found major cognitive problems among people exposed to alcohol in utero, even in the absence of marked physical dysmorphology . However, our challenge was to establish the defining characteristics of ARND, which can be used in diagnosis. Although our approach revealed a set of consistent deficits, the ARND group did not differ from the non-ARND group in their specific assets. buy ortho tri-cyclen
The split between Verbal and Performance IQ on the WISC-III and lowered IQ scores overall in our sample of children in the ARND group is similar to the findings of the Seattle group , which provided the seminal findings on this population. A study by Korkman et al compared three subgroups of prenatally exposed children and nonexposed controls on tests of neuropsychological functioning. While the groups did not differ in age or sex distribution, they did differ with respect to maternal education and impairments on composite scores of naming, receptive language, attention and visual motor production. Also indicated was a significant split between relatively low Verbal IQ and relatively high Performance IQ, but the overall mean Full Scale IQ of the ARND group in their study was notably higher than that in our study. In the study by Mattson et al comparing prenatally exposed children with and without FAS versus normal controls, both alcohol-exposed groups scored significantly lower than controls and did not differ from each other on six of eight measures (three of which were the same or comparable with measures used in our study). The findings of Mattson et al were similar to ours in that they did not detect significant differences on a test of visual motor integration. Our findings also confirm previous reports in the literature of deficits in the areas of mathematics, reading comprehension, and time and money concepts.