Warfarin therapy: Costs were based on a one-year supply of Coumadin® (5 mg/ day) dispensed in lots of 100 and monitoring of prothrombin time by physician. Frequency of prothrombin testing was determined by an expert panel consisting of four clinicians (general internist-coagulation/ throm bo sis, clini cal pharmacist- cardiology, car -diologist and a family physician) at Sunnybrook Health Science Centre (see Acknowledgements) and was in agreement with others. Each panel member completed a survey, with all responses pooled. In the case where responses varied, a reasonable average estimate was made and confirmed by a fifth panel member (clinical pharmacist, cardiology) at Sunny-brook Health Science Centre.
Funeral: Cost ofdeath was estimated conservatively based on a December 1992 survey conducted by the Board of Funeral Services in Ontario. Cost represents the overall average charges paid by the public in 1992 for a full service funeral including funeral home charges, casket, transportation of casket, burial and minister. Economic value of life (ie, human capital) was not considered further. buy ampicillin
Cost of hemorrhage: Bleeding costs depended on severity. Major bleeding was defined as cerebral in nature and required extensive hospitalization. Minor bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring fewer than four days ofhospitalization and was based on the most common bleed type, which was gastrointestinal. Costs for major bleeds were obtained from stroke researchers at Sunnybrook Health Science Centre. Cost of minor bleeding was based on the average cost of gastrointestinal bleeds at Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in 1992 (personal communication).