The Toronto experience: SUBJECTS AND METHODS(4)


Data analysis

Analyses of covariance with parent intelligence quotient (IQ) as the covariate were used to compare demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of children who fit the ARND profile versus those who did not. The Bonferonni P correction was applied for multiple variables within individual test domains. One-way analyses of variance were conducted on the physical information. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to correlate physical and neuropsychological test results. Post hoc testing was done using the Newman-Keuls test. All results are significant at the 0.05 level (after Bonferonni correction) unless otherwise indicated. buy flovent inhaler


Diagnosis of ARND

The ratings of the examiner and psychologist were highly correlated (deficits r=0.93, strengths r=0.67). According to the criteria, 28 children (54%, 16 boys, 12 girls) had a neuropsychological profile consistent with ARND. Of the 11 children living with their biological parents, 64% were in the ARND group. The 24 children (15 boys, nine girls) assigned to the non-ARND group included the five children who were referred for prenatal cocaine exposure. The mean percentage of items checked as deficits was 74% for the ARND group and 41% for non-ARND, which are significantly different (P<0.01). The mean percentage of assets was 53% and 48.5% for ARND and non-ARND groups, respectively, which are not significantly different.

The ARND group was more likely to have repeated a grade (32% versus 8%, P<0.05), be receiving special education (68% versus 33%, P<0.05), and have a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (32% versus 8%, P<0.05).


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