For the visuospatial domain, the groups did not differ on any relevant WISC-III subtests nor the McCarthy Perceptual Scale (younger children only). Similarly, they did not differ in visuomotor abilities measured with Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.
On memory tests, children in the ARND group showed significantly weaker auditory memory (P<0.01), as measured by a story remembering task for older children and the auditory memory index for younger children. The groups did not differ on indexes of rote and working memory for numbers.
With regard to academic achievement, the school-aged ARND group scored significantly below its non-ARND counterpart on tests of written arithmetic and reading comprehension , and understanding of time and money. They did not differ significantly in reading or spelling. Children in the younger age group with ARND performed significantly poorer than controls on the arithmetic subscale of an academic screening test (EINSTEIN). buy asthma inhaler