The results from the individual subtests of the WISC-III indicated that groups differed significantly on Vocabulary, Similarities, Information and Comprehension subtests, with the ARND group scoring lower in each case. These tasks measure word knowledge, abstract verbal reasoning, general information, and understanding of common events and rules of propriety, respectively. As shown in Table 4, the groups differed in patterns of performance, with the ARND group scoring lowest on Comprehension and Information, and highest on Object Assembly and Picture Completion. The non-ARND group scored lowest on Coding and Digit Span and highest on Picture Completion and Similarities. Among the younger children tested with the McCarthy scales, similar patterns were observed, with the ARND group scoring lowest on the Verbal scale and the non-ARND scoring the highest. buy prednisone
TABLE 4 Mean scores of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and comparison groups on neuropsychological and achievement tests
*Significance after analysis of covariance controlling for parent full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Italicized numbers approach significance. fStandard scores mean 100; tPresent for both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III), and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scale (all others WISC-III only); §Scaled scores mean 10; HPercentiles mean 50; **Scores range from 0 (poor) to 1 (acceptable), x2=5.4, DF=1, P=0.02. EINSTEIN; EOWPVT-R Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test; PLS Preschool Language Scale; PPVT-R Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; TROG Test for the Reception of Oral Grammar; WRAML Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning; WRAT Wide Range Achievement Test; WRMT Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests
On measures of language, the ARND group scored lower than the non-ARND group on receptive and expressive language tests. Among the older children, differences were most evident on tests of receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), receptive grammar (Test for the Reception of Oral Grammar) and word naming (Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test). Among preschool children, the ARND group scored significantly lower on the Preschool Language Scale expressive but not receptive scale and not on the Test of Language Competence, which assesses figurative speech and inference making.