Four children in the ARND group and three in the comparison group had “many physical signs” of prenatal alcohol exposure (rating of 3 on likert scale). The physical signs presented were not enough, however, to warrant a diagnosis of FAS. In addition to growth retardation and central nervous system dysfunction, children with the full-blown syndrome present with multiple facial features resulting in the overt appearance of FAS. In contrast, children with ARND may have one or two facial features that are statistically significant, but their overall appearance is not observable in the same way as with FAS. asthma inhalers
In our ARND sample, the children with many physical signs tended to present with two distinct signs of growth retardation and only one characteristic facial feature detectable by measurement. Furthermore, despite their ‘many’ physical signs, the four children in the ARND group were not rated on the diagnostic checklists as having more problems than the other children in the ARND group who presented with fewer or no physical signs. This lends support to one of the underlying premises of this paper — that children with ARND are as adversely affected by prenatal alcohol exposure as children with the full-blown syndrome, regardless of their degree of physical dysmorphology.