The Toronto experience: RESULTS(1)

Demographic and physical information

Table 2 presents the demographic information for children who fit the ARND profile and those who did not. The groups did not differ in socioeconomic status, or in age of the child, parent or caregiver. Parents of children in the ARND group had significantly lower full scale and verbal IQs. The groups were similar in terms of the number living in foster or adoptive homes, with a biological relative or with a biological parent, and in terms of the number of homes lived in before testing (Table 2). Buy Asthma Inhalers Online


Demographic information and background differences between the alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and comparison groups

ARND(n=28) Comparison(n=24)
Child’s age (years) 8.81±4.01 9.01±3.94
Child’s sex
Female (%) (n=21) Male (%) (n=31) 42.957.1 37.562.5
Number of homes before testing 2.2±1.3 3.1±2.6
— — — — — ОPlacement at testing
Foster/adoptive home 20 (71.4%) 18 (75%)
With a biological relative 1 (3.6%) 2 (8.3%)
With a biological parent 7 (25%) 4 (16.7%)
SES categories (%)
1 21.4 20.8
2 25.0 50.0
3 21.4 12.5
4 21.4 8.3
5 10.7 8.3
Caregiver’s age (years) 39.5±8.3 43.8±8.9
Parent prorated IQ (mean ± SD)
FIQ* 95.69±13.25 108.91±15.51
(n=13) (n=11)
PIQ 101.69±10.61 110.27±14.73
VIQ* 93.00±16.15 106.64±15.35
Special education* 19 (67.9%) 8 (33.3%)
Grade repetition 9 (32.0%) 2 (8.0%)
ADHD diagnosis* 9 (32.0%) 2 (8.0%)

*P<0.05. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; FIQ Full scale intelligence quotient (IQ); PIQ Performance IQ; SES Socioeconomic status; VIQ

The ARND and non-ARND groups were similar in age at 8.8±4.0 and 9.0±3.9 years (mean ± SD), respectively (Table 2). On indexes of physical development (Table 3), the groups did not differ significantly in height, weight or head circumference, although the ARND group was slightly smaller on all indexes and slightly below average in contrast to the non-ARND group. The groups were similar in degree of facial dys-morphology with the majority in both groups having some (that is, mild) dysmorphology. The groups had similar palpable fissure and philtrum lengths.

TABLE 3 Mean, frequency and range scores for physical information in children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and the comparison group 

Table3The Toronto experience in diagnosing
Mean scores are percentiles, scores at or below the 10th percentile are considered clinically significant


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