This paper describes our findings in characterizing children with ARND using a cognitive and behavioural profile analysis. We diagnosed ARND in children who were rated as having a specified number of deficits and assets according to our criteria. The types of deficits and assets within the checklists were given equal weight. By this method, ARND was diagnosed in 54% of children. We then compared the children under both classifications according to demographic and home background factors, physical development, neuropsychological and achievement characteristics, and behaviour. The groups were similar in almost all background factors, physical development and behaviour including diagnosis of ADHD. ventolin inhaler
The only exception was the higher IQs of parents (both biological and adoptive or foster) of children in the ARND group. In contrast, the groups had a distinctive profile on the neuropsychological tasks reflecting poorer verbal ability overall, including measures of receptive and expressive language ability and poorer auditory memory, but they did not differ on indexes of auditory attention, speed of processing, rote and working memory, or visuospatial and visuomotor abilities. While similar visuospatial and rote memory abilities were expected under our classification scheme, the lack of difference in attention and speed of processing was not. On indexes of academic achievement, the groups performed similarly in reading and spelling but differed in oral and written arithmetic and reading comprehension. The ARND group also had a poorer understanding of time and money concepts.