Gastroparesis: PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGY Part 1

GastroparesisGastroparesis may be acute or chronic (the latter has been defined arbitrarily as a disorder persisting for more than three months). Some of the causes of both acute and chronic gastric stasis are summarized in Table 1. In patients with acute gastroparesis, correction of the underlying etiology is usually associated with restoration of gastric motor function; chronic causes are usually irreversible. Drugs such as opiate analgesics and L-dopa, a generalized ileus due to surgery, severe infection and electrolyte disturbances are among the most common causes of acute gastroparesis. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the rate of gastric emptying is influenced by acute changes in the blood glucose concentration; emptying is slower during hyperglycemia than during euglycemia, and accelerated during hypoglycemia. Viral-induced gastroparesis is usually reversible, albeit sometimes over a period of several months. A number of factors (including drugs, pain, sepsis, electrolyte imbalance and raised intracranial pressure) contribute to the slow gastric emptying that occurs frequently in patients who are critically ill; in this group of patients, gastroparesis may prevent effective enteral nutrition. You can shop with a reliable pharmacy – diabetes drugs to pay less for high quality.

TABLE 1
Causes of gastroparesis and rapid gastric emptying

Transient delayed gastric emptying
Drugs: eg, morphine, anticholinergics, L-dopa, nicotine
Postoperative ileus
Viral gastroenteritis
Electrolyte abnormalities – hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia
Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypopituitarism, Addison’s disease
Herpes zoster
Critical illness
Chronic gastric stasis
Diabetes mellitus
Idiopathic or functional dyspepsia
Surgery, eg, vagotomy
Gastroesophageal reflux
Atrophic gastritis
Progressive systemic sclerosis
Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Myotonia dystrophica
Dermatomyositis or polymyositis
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
Amyloidosis
Autonomic degeneration
Spinal cord injury
Tumours
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa
Central nervous system disease, brain stem lesions, Parkinson’s disease
Irradiation
Human immunodeficiency virus infection
Porphyria
Liver disease
Rapid gastric emptying
Surgery
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Duodenal ulcer disease
Pancreatic insufficiency (fat)
‘Early’ type 2 diabetes (possible association)

Category: Gastroparesis

Tags: Gastric emptying, Gastroparesis

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