Abnormally slow stomach emptying may reflect a defective mechanical breakdown of food, an ineffective propulsion of intragastric content or an abnormally high resistance to emptying. In view of the incomplete understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal gastric emptying, it is not surprising that the motor dysfunctions responsible for delayed gastric emptying are poorly characterized. An improved definition of motor abnormalities in gastroparesis should allow therapies designed to accelerate gastric emptying to be targeted more effectively. A limitation of many studies is that they assess the function of only one or two components in an integrated system. It is, nevertheless, clear that, in patients with gastroparesis, the motor abnormalities are heterogeneous and the organization of contractions is frequently impaired. Proximal gastric function is abnormal in many patients with postsurgical gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis. The emphasis of most studies has been on antral motility, which has usually been evaluated as an ‘index’ that takes into account the amplitude and frequency of pressure waves, but provides no information about their organization. Both fasting and postprandial antral hypomotility occur frequently in patients with gastroparesis. Increased pyloric motility does not appear to be a major factor contributing to gastroparesis. Abnormal proximal small intestinal motor function occurs frequently in patients with gastroparesis. In some groups of patients with gastroparesis, there is a high prevalence of gastric dysrhythmias (usually measured by cutaneous electrogastrography), which may contribute to slow emptying. Dreaming of a reliable pharmacy to find cialis professional and spend less money?