Participants and Study Setting
Participants were physicians at two teaching hospitals, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, both located in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Hospitals were comprised of a main campus made up of multiple hospital buildings. The physicians participating in this study worked in different buildings throughout the hospital campus. The workplace smoking policy was determined by the hospital; however, enforcement of the policy was the responsibility of the department(s) occupying each building (K.S. Okuyemi, personal communication, January 21,2004).
A 14-item self-administered survey was conducted from June to August 2002. The survey assessed demographics, including age, gender, physician smoking status, and physician specialty; smoking policies in the buildings where physicians practiced (completely nonsmoking, smoking in designated areas, or no smoking policy); physician estimates of the percentage of adults and physicians in Nigeria who smoke; physicians’ attitudes about smoking cessation, including the importance of their patients quitting (scale of 1 “not at all important” to 10 “extremely important”) and whether they thought counseling smokers helps them quit (yes/no); physicians’ smoking cessation practices over the past three months (asking patient’s smoking status, patient’s request for help quitting, and prescription of pharmacotherapy); and the presence of smoking guidelines/policies in their clinical practice (yes/no). canadian pharmacy
Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (SAS, 1990). Categorical variables were summarized with percentages and continuous variables were summarized by means. Chi-square tests were used to make comparisons of categorical variables while t-tests were used to make comparisons of the means of continuous variables. Two-sided p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Given that the setting and patient population of medical specialties differ with regard to the appropriateness of tobacco-related counseling, physicians practicing in specialties where there is not regular patient contact (e.g., pathology, microbiology, hematology) or there is limited opportunity to intervene with smokers (e.g. anesthesia, radiology, pediatrics) were excluded from analyses regarding physician’s smoking cessation practices over the past three months (asking patient’s smoking status, patient’s request for help quitting, and prescription of pharmacotherapy). cialis professional 20 mg