PULMONARY FUNCTION OF HERDSMEN: RESULTS

Comments on the Study Population

The study subjects were well-matched with respect to age: the mean ages of the urban subjects (Jos) and rural Fulani were 39.6 ± 11.7 and 35.0 ± 14.8 years, respectively, with no significant difference between the mean ages of the two groups. The mean heights of the men in the two groups were identical at 1.70 m (Table 1). However, on average, the Fulani men weighed about 9 kg less than the males in Jos (58.5 ± 9.4 versus 67.4 ±11.3 kg, respectively, pO.001). Consequently, the BMI was lower in the Fulani men (20.3 ± 2.5 versus 23.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2, respectively, p<0.001). To obtain information about body composition, the mid-arm circumference, which is proportional to lean body mass, and triceps skin-fold thickness, which is proportional to body fat, were measured. Both parameters were significantly lower in the Fulani subjects compared with the urban males: the mean mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in the rural Fulani and Jos subjects were 25.0 ± 2.2, 27.6 ± 3.5 cm (p<0.001); and 5.23 ± 1.4, 7.60 ± 3.6 mm (p<0.001), respectively.

Table 1. Anthropometric Characteristics of Adult Males in Jos and the Rural Fulani Populations in Northern Nigeria ± Standard Deviation

Parameter

Urban Subjects (n=28) Fulani Subjects (n=44)

p-value

Age (years)

39.6 ± 11.7

35.0 ± 14.8

NS
Height (m)

1.70 ± 0.07

1.70 ± 0.07

NS
Weight (kg)

67.4 ± 11.3

58.5 ± 9.4

<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)

23.4 ± 3.5

20.3 ± 2.5

<0.001
MAC (cm)

27.6 ± 3.5

25.0 ± 2.2

O.001
Triceps skin-fold (mm)

7.60 ± 3.6

5.23 ± 1.4

<0.001
BMI = body mass index; MAC = mid-arm circumference

Pulmonary Function Parameters

There was no statistically significant difference between the FVC values of the Fulani subjects and their urban counterparts (3.25 ± 0.77 versus 3.37 ± 0.78 L, respectively) (Table 2). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the measured FEVi values of the two study populations (3.05 ± 0.72 versus 2.80 ± 0.57 L, respectively). There was also no significant difference in the measured FEF25-75% values (3.98 ± 1.38 versus 3.34 ± 1.37 L/s, respectively) of the two populations. PEF, which is diminished with airway obstruction, was not significantly different between the two groups (5.57 ± 1.7 versus 5.34 ± 2.0 L/s, respectively). The only parameter that distinguished the two study groups was the FEVi/FVC ratio, which was significantly increased in the Fulani men relative to the urban men (0.93 ±0.10 versus 0.85 ± 0.11, respectively, pO.001). canada viagra online

Table 2. Indices of Lung Function in Adult Males in Jos and the Rural Fulani in Northern Nigeria ± Standard Deviation

Parameter

Urban Subjects (n=28) Fulani Subjects (n=44) p-value
FVC (liters)

3.37 ± 0.77

3.25 ± 0.78

NS

Predicted FVC (%)

85.7 ±0.19

83.0 ±0.18

NS

FEVi (liters)

2.80 ± 0.57

3.05 ± 0.72

NS

Predicted FEV, (%)

86.4 ±0.17

91.9 ±0.19

NS

FEVi/FVC

0.85 ±0.11

0.93 ±0.10

O.001

Predicted FEVi/FVC (%)

102 ±0.13

110 ± 0.13

O.001

FEF25-75% (liters/second)

3.34 ± 1.37

3.98 ± 1.38

NS

Predicted FEF25-75% (%)

102 ±0.40

117 ±0.37

NS

PEF (liters/second)

5.34 ± 1.99

5.57 ± 1.73

NS

Predicted PEF (%)

74.8 ± 28.9

78.6 ± 25.0

NS

Table 3. Correlation Coefficient (r) of Linear Regression Analysis Between Lung Function Indices and Anthropometric Parameters in Adult Rural Fulani Males in Northern Nigeria

Parameter FVC Fulani Subjects (n=44) FEV,            FEV,/FVC        FEF25-75% PEF
Age (years) 0.15* 0.18* 0.11* 0.22* 0.10*
Height (m) 0.13* 0.17* 0.01 0.13* 0.02
Weight (kg) 0.11t 0.16* 0.00 0.08 0.03
BMI (kg/m2) 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.02
MAC (cm) 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.04
Triceps skin-fold (mm) 0.00 0.02 0.07 0.04 0.03
FVC = forced vital capacity; FEVi = forced expiratory volume in one second; FEF25-75% = forced expiratory flow during middle 50% of FVC; PEF = peak expiratory flow; BMI = body mass index; MAC = mid-arm circumference; tP=0.01-0.05; Jp=0.001-0.009; *p<0.001

Correlation of Spirometry Measurements with Anthropometric Data

We performed multiple regression analyses in order to determine which of the measured anthropo­metric parameters correlated most strongly with various indices of pulmonary function. In the Fulani subjects, statistically significant correlations were found between age and FVC (r=0.15), FEV, (0.18), FEV./FVC (0.11), and PEF (0.10); height and FVC (0.13), and FEVi (0.17); and between weight and FVC (0.11), and FEV, (0.16) (Table 3). Statistically significant correlation coefficients for the Jos subjects were observed between weight and FEVi  (r=0.23), and PEF (0.27); BMI and PEF (0.19); mid-arm circumference and FVC (0.14), FEV, (0.24), and PEF (0.30); and between triceps skinfold thickness and PEF (0.14) (Table 4). cialis professional

Table 4. Correlation Coefficient (r) of Linear Regression Analysis Between Lung Function Indices and Anthropometric Parameters in Adult Urban Males in Northern Nigeria

Parameter

FVC FEVi

Urban Subjects (n=28)

FEV,/FVC         FEF25-75%

PEF

Age (years) 0.02 0.00

0.06

0.00

0.02

Height (m) 0.10 0.12

0.00

0.09

0.08

Weight (kg) 0.13 0.23*

0.00

0.15*

0.27*

BMI (kg/m2) 0.06 0.14

0.00

0.08

0.19*

MAC (cm) 0.14* 0.24*

0.00

0.14*

0.30*

Triceps skin-fold (mm) 0.07 0.05

0.04

0.13

0.14*

FVC = forced vital capacity; FEVi = forced expiratory volume in one second; FEF25-75% = forced expiratory flow during middle 50% of FVC; PEF = peak expiratory flow; BMI = body mass index; MAC = mid-arm circumference; tP=0.01-0.05; Jp=0.001-0.009; *p<0.001

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