Prevention of Oral Mucositis Due to 5-Fluorouracil Treatment with Oral Cryotherapy: RESULTS

Seventy-eight (71.7%) of the courses were given to male and 21 (28.3%) were given to female subjects. Cryotherapy was administered in 45.5% of the courses. After the chemotherapy treatment, mucositis was observed in 24.2% of courses (Table 1).

Table 1. Distribution of the chemotherapy courses according to sex, cryotherapy administration and development of mucositis

(n=99)

%
Sex
Male

71

71.7
Female

28

28.3
Cryotherapy
Administrated

45

45.5
Not administrated

54

54.5
Development of Mucositis
Yes

24

24.2
No

75

75.8

Mucositis was observed in 19.7% of the courses given to the male subjects, and this ratio was 35.7% in females (p=0.094). Mucositis was developed in 22.2% of courses given to subjects who were using dentures (p=0.774) (Table 2). These two variables have no statistically significant correlation with the development of mucositis.
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Table 2. Distribution of courses with and without mucositis according to sex and presence of dentures

Mucositis

Observed

Not Observed
n

%*

n %*

x2

P

Sex
Male      14

19.7

57 80.3

2.798

0.094

Female   10

35.7

18 64.3
Dentures
Yes         6

22.2

21 77.8

0.083

0.774

No         18

25.0

54 75.0
* percent of lines n=99

While mucositis developed in 6.7% of the courses given with cryotherapy, this ratio was 38.9% in courses given without cryotherapy. In the logistic regression analysis, development of mucositis had been found to correlate only with cryotherapy. Odds ratio (OR)=11.5; in the 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.2^1.9; (p=0.001) (Table 3). In view of this result, it can be assumed that cryotherapy has a protective effect against development of mucositis.

Table 3. Incidence of mucositis development in the chemotherapy courses given with and without cryotherapy

Mucositis
Cryotherapy    Observed Not Observed
n      %* n      %*
Administrated          3     6.7 42     93.3
Not administrated    21    38.9 33     61.1
Total                     24    24.2 75     75.8
* percent of lines; p=0.000; x2= 13.876

In the total of 24 courses in which mucositis developed, the percentages of grade I, II and III mucositis were 66.7%o, 20.8% and 12.5%, respectively. Grade-IV mucositis was observed in none of the cases. However, only grade-I mucositis was observed in courses given with cryotherapy (Table 4).
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Table 4. Grading of mucositis in the chemotherapy courses given with and without cryotherapy

Cryotherapy
Mucositis No Yes
Grade

n

%

n

%
1

13

81.3

3

18.7
2

5

20.8

0

0
3

3

12.5

0

0
4

0

0

0

0
Total

21

87.5

3

12.5

Cryotherapy was well tolerated. No local or systemic side effects were observed due to cryotherapy. Common side effects developed secondary to chemotherapy included diarrhea (24.2%), nausea (6.1%), vomiting (3.0%) and fever (2.0%). None of these side effects showed correlation with cryotherapy.
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Category: Main

Tags: 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, oral mucositis, prevention

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