Racial Differences in Beliefs about Genetic Screening among Patients at Inner-City Neighborhood Health Centers. RESULTS

Demographics

Fifty percent of the respondents were African-American and 50% Caucasian. Distributions for sex, marital status, level of education, household income, self-rated health, likelihood of having a physical examination within the last year, religion and religious influence differed significantly between races (Table 1). Interestingly, a higher percentage of African Americans thought God’s Word was the most important source for moral decisions than did Caucasians (79% vs. 56%, PO.001).

Table 1. Patient characteristics

Variable

Overall* (n=314)

%

Caucasians (n=157)

%

African Americans (n=157)

%

P Value
Age (%)
50-64

52

52

52

65+

48

48

48

1.00

Female (%)

72

63

80

O.001

Marital Status (%)
Married

30

41

20

Widowed

30

27

32

Never married

11

11

10

Separated/divorced

30

21

38

O.001

Level of Education (%)
Some college education or more

40

48

33

<High school/vocational school

60

52

67

0.007

Household Income (%)
<$ 10,000

29

25

33

$10,000-$19,999

32

26

37

$20,000-$39,999

20

22

18

$40,000+

20

27

11

0.002

Self-Rated Health (%)
Excellent/very good

32

44

20

Good

36

35

38

Fair/poor

32

21

42

<0.001

Complete physical within the last year (%)

80

75

85

0.020

Religion (%)
Christian, Catholic/Orthodox

16

32

3

Christian, Protestant

68

58

86

Other

16

10

11

<0.001

God’s Word is most important source for moral
decisions (%)

68

56

79

O.001

Influence of Religion (%)
Quite a lot

76

69

83

Some

13

18

8

Not much

11

13

8

0.008

* May not add up to 100% due to rounding

Causes of Diseases

For seven diseases, respondents were asked to identify if they believed that the disease was caused by genetics, environment, both or neither. Most respondents thought that sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and diabetes were primarily genetic. Most thought that influenza was environmental, whereas a plurality thought that cancer, obesity and alcoholism had both genetic and environmental causes (Table 2). Racial differences in the perceived causes were found for four of these diseases: cystic fibrosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes (Table 2). Source your medication needs online. Cialis professional canada home delivered

Table 2. Percent of respondents who attribute disease to genes, the environment neither or both, by race

African

Overall*

Caucasians

Americans

Disease

(n=314)

(n=157)

(n=157)

P Value*

Sickle Cell Anemia
Genes

88

88

88

Environment

1

1

1

Both

4

4

5

Neither

6

7

5

0.859

Cystic Fibrosis
Genes

75

80

70

Environment

4

2

8

Both

22

12

10

Neither

9

7

13

0.044

Cancer
Genes

32

26

39

Environment

9

9

10

Both

46

58

34

Neither

12

8

17

O.001

Obesity
Genes

31

25

37

Environment

14

14

14

Both

43

52

35

Neither

11

9

13

0.023

Diabetes
Genes

61

51

71

Environment

6

5

6

Both

26

36

17

Neither

7

7

6

O.001

Alcoholism
Genes

27

23

32

Environment

20

18

22

Both

40

48

33

Neither

12

11

13

0.079

The Flu
Genes со со

3

Environment

69

64

74

Both

12

17

8

Neither

16

16

16

0.121

* May not add up to 100% due to rounding; | P value by Fisher’s exact test

Attitudes about Genetic Testing

Most (>90%) respondents thought that genetic testing is a good idea and that research on genetics would bring cures for many diseases (Table 3), while few believed that genetic testing results should be made available to employers, used for gender selection of a baby or as a basis for abortion. Buy flomax

Table 3. Attitudes* on genetic testing by race

Attitudes on Genetic Testing (%)

Overall (n=314) Caucasians (n=157} African Americans (n=157) P Value*
Genetic testing to check tor risk ot getting a disease is a good idea

90

90

90

0.865

Employers should be able to see the results of genetic testing before hiring workers

29

26

30

0.358

Genetic testing will lead to racial discrimination

47

34

58

O.001

Genetic testing will lead to discrimination against the handicapped

55

47

64

0.003

Research on genetics will bring cures for many diseases

94

93

95

0.637

Research on genetics is tampering with nature and unethical

25

17

31

0.003

All pregnant women should have tests to look for genetic problems in the baby

70

58

79

O.001

Only pregnant women who want to should have tests to look for genetic problems in the baby

81

81

79

0.709

A pregnant woman whose baby has an abnormal genetic test should have an abortion                                                  23

20

24

0.378

People should be able to use genetic testing to select the sex

of their children                                                             17           17

* Includes only patients who gave “agree” and “neutral” responses; f P value by Chi-squared test

14

0.517

Multivariate Models

After controlling for age, gender, educational level, marital status, self-rated health, time since last physical exam, and the influence of religion on major decisions, African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to agree that genetic testing led to racial discrimination (Table 4). Similarly, African Americans were more likely to agree that research on genetic testing was tampering with nature and thereby unethical, and more likely to agree that all pregnant women should have genetic tests. Although African Americans were less likely to identify themselves as Christian/Catholic/Orthodox, African Americans remained more likely to believe that God’s Word was their most important source for moral decisions.

Table 4. Demographics, health and attitudes about predictive genetic testing among African Americans compared with Caucasians

African Americans vs. Caucasians

Variable

Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P Value

Age 50-64 years (ref., 65+ years)

1.78 0.57-2.43 0.657

Female (ref., male)

1.30 0.59-2.82 0.515

Some college education or more (ref., <high-school diploma) 1.28

0.59-2.76 0.532
Marital Status (ref., Separated/Divorced)

Married

Widowed

Never married

0.19 0.37 0.56 0.08-0.47 0.14-0.97 0.17-1.91 O.001 0.042 0.358
Self-Rated Health (ref., Fair/Poor)

Excellent/very good

Good

0.16 0.53 0.06-0.40 0.22-1.27 O.001 0.156

Complete physical within the last year

2.04 0.87-4.77 0.102

Genetic testing will lead to racial discrimination

3.02 1.51-6.05 0.002
Research on genetics is tampering with nature and is unethical 2.29 0.96-5.43 0.061

All pregnant women should have genetic tests

3.85 1.73-8.61 0.001
God’s Word is the most important source for moral decisions 3.61 1.50-8.72 0.004
Religion (ref., Other) Christian, Catholic/Orthodox Christian, Protestant 0.07 1.63 0.02-0.34 0.62-4.30 0.001 0.323
Influence of Religion on Decisions (ref., Not Much)

Quite a lot

Some

1.46 1.33 0.37-5.73 0.26-6.81 0.584 0.733

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