Gender and Race/Ethnicity Affect the Cost-Effectiveness of Colorectal Cancer Screening. Modeling & Statistics


Cost-effectiveness modeling of colorectal screening programs was done using a model developed at the Office for Technology Assessment (Washington, DC) and described in detail elsewhere. This model estimates the net present value of lifetime costs and years of life gained in a cohort of 100,000 50-year-old persons over a 35-year period from different colorectal cancer screening strategies using specified assumptions about the natural history of colorectal and the adenoma or carcinoma sequence, the sensitivity and specificity of each screening technology for early cancer and polyps, the cost of screening, follow-up and postpolypecto-my surveillance procedures, and the incremental costs of treating colorectal cancer. Costs were taken from 2000 Medicare reimbursement rates. Costs were discounted to their present value at 5% per year. The main assumptions of the model are summarized in Table 1. Justification of model assumptions are based on reviews of the published literature.

Table 1. Assumptions used in the cost-effectiveness analysis Variable Value
Natural History of the Disease
Prevalence of adenomas at age 50, % 30
Proportion of all clinically detected cancers that begin as polyps, % 70
Years required for a 5-mm adenoma to progress to colorectal cancer 5 or 10
Years required for a new invasive cancer to progress
to late-stage cancer 2
Years before late-stage colorectal cancer is detected 2
Prevalence of lifetime-latent cancers at 50 years of age 2/1,000
Annual incidence of lifetime-latent cancer 2/10,000
Accuracy, %
Fecal occult blood test
Sensitivity for polyps 10
Sensitivity for colorectal cancer 60
Specificity 90
Sigmoidoscopy and Colonoscopy
Sensitivity for polyps (within reach of the scope) 90
Specificity for polyps 95
Medical Risks, %
Rate of colonoscopy-induced perforation of the large bowel 7/10,000
Colonoscopy-induced mortality 5/100,000
Surgery-related mortality in patients with colorectal cancer 1/50
Costs, $
Fecal occult blood test 4
Screening sigmoidoscopy 401
Screening Colonoscopy 696
Therapeutic colonoscopy 1013
Treatment of patients with cancer 45,228
Treatment of patients with colonoscopy-induced perforations 13,000
Treatment of patients who die as a result of colonoscopy 30,000


Confidence intervals were constructed using the exact method of Poisson, and comparisons of mean age-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates were performed with SAS statistical software. Your life is worth living. Buy viagra jelly online


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