Deficits in Diagnosis, Treatment and Continuity of Care in African-American Children and Adolescents with ADHD. RESULTS

There was no significant difference in the mean age of diagnosis (African Americans: 7.36 years; Caucasians: 7.25 years) or the mean age of symptom onset (African Americans: 4.0 years; Caucasians: 4.4 years). The comorbidities reported were similar for both groups (Table 1). There were fewer African-American parents (n=4) who could identify a relative with ADHD than Caucasian parents (n=12; %2=5.31, p<0.03), We found no differences between the two groups for pharmacological treatments recommended, outcomes or compliance (Tables 2-4). The average number of days between visits for African-American patients (74.02) was significantly longer than that for Caucasians (50.23) (SD 26, p<0.05).

Table 1. Comorbid disorders

African Americans Caucasians
Total (n=28) (n=29) x2
Depression

25

12

13

NS
Suicidal ideation

12

8

4

NS
Acts of aggression

36

21

15

NS
Self-injury

17

9

8

NS
Gen. anxiety/separation anxiety

23

10

13

NS
Psychosis

7

5

2

NS
Homicidal ideation

2

2

0

NS
Obsessive-compulsive disorder

3

0

3

NS
Panic disorder

3

1

2

NS
Substance abuse

3

1

2

NS

Table 2. Recommended medications
atomoxetine hydrochloride

African Americans Caucasians

(n=28)            (n=24)     x2

Methylphenidate 12

12

NS

Adderall 15

16

NS

Positive responses to methylphenidate 10

13

NS

Positive responses to Adderall 9

14

NS

No response to methylphenidate 2

1

NS

No response to Adderall 6 CM

NS

Not using medication 1

1

NS

Table 3. Outcome of psychostimulant treatment

African Americans

Caucasians

(n=23)

(n=20) x2
Positive results       19

25

NS
No change           8 CO NS
Symptoms worse    0

0

NS
Never took            1

1

NS

Table 4. Compliance treatment

n

African Americans (n=28)

Caucasians (n=29)

x2
Consistent compliance

33

16

17 NS
Episodic compliance

9

4

5 NS
Consistent Noncompliance

7

4

со NS
Unknown/NA CO

3

5 NS

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